Chapter I: Defensible Space Principles    
Fig. I-1: Overall view of Pruitt-Igoe in St. Louis   11
Fig. I-2: Architect’s vision of communal corridor   10
Fig. I-3: Actual 3rd floor communal corridor of Pruitt-Igoe   12
Fig. I-4: Vandalism in Pruitt-Igoe   12
Fig. I-5: Pruitt-Igoe in the process of being torn down   12
Fig. I-6: Carr Square Village   12
Fig. I-7: Graph of increase in crime with building height   13
Fig. I-8: Aerial view of typical closed streets in St. Louis   14
Fig. I-9: Single-family houses and the nature of spaces   15
Fig. I-10: Walk-up buildings and the nature of spaces   17
Fig. I-11: The elevator high-rise and the nature of spaces   18
Fig. I-12: A four city-block row-house development   19
Fig. I-13: A four-city-block garden apartment development   20
Fig. I-14: A four-city-block high-rise development   21
Fig. I-15: A high-rise and walk-up built at the same density   22
Fig. I-16: Comparison of two walkups subdivided differently   24
Fig. I-17: Crime rates by social and physical variables   25
Fig. I-18: Variations in crime rate by socio-economic groups   28
Chapter II: Creating Mini-neighborhoods in Urban Residential Areas: The Five Oaks Community, Dayton, OH
Fig. II-1: Map locating Five Oaks and downtown Dayton   34
Fig. II-2: Typical street in Five Oaks   35
Fig. II-3: Deteriorated two-story walk-up in Five Oaks   37
Fig. II-4: Street in Five Oaks with various building types   38
Fig. II-5: Map of Five Oaks’ internal streets and boundaries   38
Fig. II-6: Map of Five Oaks showing percent renters   39
Fig. II-7: Map of Five Oaks showing percent black renters   39
Fig. II-8: Map of Five Oaks showing percent vacancies   39
Fig. II-9: Greek cross plan for ideal mini-neighborhood   48
Fig. II-10: Overly large cul-de-sac layout   49
Fig. II-11: Schematic showing ideal access to mini-neighborhoods   49
Fig. II-12: Mini-neighborhood boundaries of Five Oaks   50
Fig. II-13: Five Oaks showing location of gates and entries   52
Fig. II-14: Hammer-head turn at end of street   52
Fig. II-15: Proposed portal markers for mini-neighborhoods   53
Fig. II-16: Actual position of portals as installed   53
Fig, II-17: Proposed gates defining mini-neighborhoods   53
Fig. II-18: Gates as actually installed   54
Fig. II-19: Gates closing off rear alley   55
Fig. II-20: Residents making improvements to their homes   60
Fig. II-21: Renter and home-owner children playing together   61
Chapter III: Modifications to Row-House Developments:
The Clason Point Experiment
Fig. III-1: Clason Point from street before modifications   73
Fig. III-2: Interior grounds before modifications   73
Fig. III-3: Composite of fear maps produced by residents   74
Fig. III-4: Six-foot fencing defines collective rear yards   75
Fig. III-5: Collective front yards defined by new curbing   76
Fig. III-5a: Vandalized tiles and mailboxes in a high-rise   77
Fig. III-6: Small play nodes   77
Fig. III-7: Wall of sample surfaces   78
Fig. III-8: The Central Area before modifications   79
Fig. III-9: Plan for the conversion of the Central Area   79
Fig. III-10: The Central Area as modified   79
Fig. III-11: Revised plan of Clason Point   80
Fig. III-12: Internal walk at Clason Point before modifications   81
Fig. III-13: Internal walk after modifications   82
Fig. III-14: Before and after photographs Clason Point   82
Fig. III-15: Residents’ response to six-foot fencing   84
Fig. III-16: Vandalism of play equipment in the Central Area   85
Fig. III-17: Play node for young children   86
Fig. III-18: Aerial view of a small portion of Clason Point   86
Chapter IV: Dispersed, Scattered-site Public Housing: Yonkers, NY
Fig. IV-1: Map showing concentration of public housing   87
Fig. IV-2: The School Street project in Yonkers   87
Fig. IV-3: Map locating Yonkers relative to New York City   88
Fig. IV-4: Aerial view of east Yonkers   88
Fig. IV-5: The Schlobohm project in Yonkers   88
Fig. IV-6: The Mulford Gardens project in Yonkers   90
Fig. IV-7: Typical site plan for a 12 unit site   91
Fig. IV-8: Typical site plan for a 24 unit site   91
Fig. IV-9: Typical site plan for a 48 unit site   94
Fig. IV-10: Street facade of cluster of five row-house units   94
Fig. IV-11 Fencing-off of the rear yards in the Yonkers   95
Fig. IV-12: Typical garbage dumpster serving public housing   96
Fig. IV-13 Individual garbage cans along the walks   96
Fig. IV-14 Completed scattered-site units in Yonkers   98
Fig. IV-15: Residents’ initial improvements to front yards   108
Fig. IV-16: Residents’ later improvements to front yards   108
Fig. IV-17: Residents’ later improvements to rear yards   109