Table of Contents

ILLUSTRATIONS  
v
 
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  
viii
 
INTRODUCTION  
1
What this book is about and who it is for  
5
Rationale for selecting the three case studies  
5
Case Study One: The Five Oaks Community in Dayton, OH  
6
Case Study Two: The Clason Point Project  
7
Case Study Three: Dispersing Public Housing, Yonkers  
7
Presentation format  
8
Chapter I: DEFENSIBLE SPACE PRINCIPLES  
10
The concept  
10
Evolution of the concept  
11
The private streets of St. Louis  
13
The effect of housing form on the ability to control areas  
14
Summary of the effect of building type on behavior  
18
The effect of building type on residents’ control of streets  
19
Social factors and their interaction with the physical  
24
The suitability of building types to life-style groups  
29
Factors influencing crime and instability  
30
Chapter II: MINI-NEIGHBORHOODS IN FIVE OAKS , DAYTON  
34
Initiating the process  
40
Initial presentations to city staff and the community  
41
Community participation in mini-neighborhood design  
48
Traffic studies  
47
Description of the Five Oaks mini-neighborhood plan  
50
The alley problem in Dayton  
55
Allied measures for stabilizing the community  
55
Evaluation of the modifications  
60
Limits to the application of the mini-neighborhood concept  
64
Chapter III: THE CLASON POINT EXPERIMENT  
71
Redefinition of grounds  
75
Resurfacing of buildings  
77
Redevelopment of the central area  
78
Effectiveness of the modifications  
81
Learning from experience  
84
Chapter IV: SCATTERED-SITE PUBLIC HOUSING IN YONKERS  
87
Design principles  
91
Problems in controlling the design process  
98
Selection of residents  
105
Training of residents  
105
Results  
108
Evaluation  
109
REFERENCES  
116
Addendum A: DEFENSIBLE SPACE GUIDELINES USED IN YONKERS RFP  
119
Background  
119
Definitions  
120
Selection of proposals  
121
Zoning  
121
Design criteria  
121
Selection of proposals  
124
Proposal evaluation criteria  
125
Addendum B: TENANT TRAINING  
128
Tenant relocation  
128
Home maintenance  
128
Interpersonal relations  
128
Safety/security  
129
Community resources  
129